Monthly Archives: June 2017

History and the Origin of Dating

In the distant arid desert grows a wholesome fruit on date palms that nourishes everyone from the toughest athletes to the most delicate infants. Whether you fancy Sukkari, Saggae, Ajwa or Medjool, the variety of dates is as vast and diversified as the ocean. With over 500 kinds of dates, Sukkari is our most prized possession when we seek moist, sweet and caramel-like flavour, whereas Ajwa is the go to for its medicinal healing. Saggae dates are a recent addition for those who prefer a less sweet date than the Sukkari date, and for those who love a fibrous, dense yet moist date.

The origin of dates is unknown due to ancient cultivation but they are believed to have been cultivated in the Middle East region from around 6000 B.C. Fossil records show that the date palm has existed for at least 50 million years.

Since their discovery, dates have widely spread in many regions and were spread by Arabs to Spain, Italy, South West Asia and North Africa. Then they were further spread by Spaniards to Mexico and California.

The Date Palm

The date palm has separate male and female plants. Only fifty percent of seedlings will be female that are grown from seed but because they grow from seed their seedling plants are often of lower quality. Most industrial plantations use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Medjool is the main cultivar that produces particularly high yields of large, sweet fruit. Plants grown from cuttings will fruit 2 to 3 years earlier than seedling plants.

The date palm productive life is limited to the years when the tree is smaller and the fruit is easier to harvest. Although the date palm is capable of living up to 100 years or more and can reach height between 15-30 metres. Their crown of green leaves grow between 3 to 6 metres in length.

The Date Pollination Method

In a natural setting, dates are pollinated by wind. However, in the commercial orchards they are pollinated manually. Natural pollination occurs with about an equal number of male and female plants. On the other hand, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. The male date palm is valued as a pollinator, this allows the farmers to use their resources for many more fruit producing female plants. Some farmers do not even maintain any male plants as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. Manual pollination is carried out by skilled labourers using ladders, or in some areas such as Iraq or Saudi Arabia they climb the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the farmers back to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing. Less often, the pollen may be blown onto the female flowers by a wind machine.

The Date Seed & How Dates Grow

Dates contain a single seed about 2-2.5 cm long and 6-8 mm thick. The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose and sucrose content. The seed of Sukkari is much larger than the seed of Saggae or Ajwa.

Dates grow in large clusters that develop beneath the leaves and can weigh as much as 40 pounds. Large trees will yield more than a 1,000 dates each year, although they do not all ripen at the same time so several harvests are required. In order to get fruit of marketable quality, the bunches of dates must be thinned and bagged or covered before ripening so that the remaining fruits grow larger and are protected from weather and pests such as birds.

The Stages of Date Ripening

Dates, as well as having different colours, tastes and textures throughout their ripening stages, they also have different names in Arabic for each stage.

Stages Weeks English Arabic Description

First Stage 1 week – Hababook – The dates are small round and light green with horizontal stripes.

Second Stage 5-17 weeks – Green Date Kimri – The dates become oval, greener and are bitter.

Third Stage 19-25 weeks – Red/Yellow Date Khalal – The next stage is the early ripening stage where the dates are yellow or red, have grown to their full size and taste crunchy but dry with a slight sweet taste.

This is where you would get a barhi date with a crunchy outer shell.

Fourth Stage 20-28 weeks – Wet Date Rutub – This stage the date is ripe, soft and moist. At this stage you are enjoying the delightful sukkari dates.

Final Stage 29 weeks – Dried Date Tamar – Final stage of ripening. At this stage you will find the saggae, ajwa and medjool date.

The last three stages of ripening are when the dates are picked, fumigated, cleaned, separated, packaged and then sold to the consumer. Barhi dates are the yellow clusters that are often found in grocery stores which are crispy and a bit astringent because they are in the Khalal stage. Once the crispy yellow flesh begins to soften, it sweetens and becomes a Rutub like our famous Sukkari Dates. Rutub require refrigeration to prolong this stage, before they transform to their final stage of a dried date. Saggae, although it is a dried date, is very soft and moist in comparison to other dried dates.

15 Tips for Dating Success

First dates can be nerve-racking and daunting. The desire to make the best impression can make getting through first dates a little difficult. This is normal for everyone. However, here are some of the most helpful first date tips that will make your first date a success.

1. Select the Right Venue

Your choice of venue says a lot about your personality and character. A bar, restaurant, or nightclub may show that you enjoy lively crowds. A day spent a parks or gardens may show that you enjoy nature and the outdoors. Or a museum or concert shows that you like the arts.

2. Make Preparations

Prior to your fist date, preparing a little will help you avoid anxiety. If you met your date online, read through their profile to pick out a few interests that may help sustain the conversation. This gives you the chance to be cheerful and confident.

3. Dress Your Best

Where you go on your first date determines what you wear but be sure to give the best impression. Going out unkempt and sloppy will give a poor first impression that might decrease your chances of a second date.

4. Be Punctual

Time is a sensitive issue on first dates and you should always be punctual to avoid having your date wait on you. However, some unavoidable circumstances may arise. When you can’t avoid being late, make sure to keep your date updated via phone call or text and remember to apologize to your date after you arrive.

5. Drop Expectations

In case you have any preconceived expectations of what your date will be like, you may miss the chance to get to know him/her for what they truly are. Be clear on your expectations but remain open to any possibility.

6. Intend to Have Fun

Remember, the main goal of your date is to get things rolling. Don’t put so much pressure on yourself and get out to have fun on your date. Even if it’s not a romantic match, it’s fun meeting new people.

7. Be on Your Best Behavior

This sounds like advice for children, but plenty of adults show bad behavior, especially on dates. Being rude or behaving like a jerk is a guarantee that you’ll end up alone before the date ends. Using dirty or abusive words or forgetting your manners like talking with your mouth full makes a terrible first impression.

8. Listen Before Speaking

Learn to take turns while conversing. It is rude to interrupt when your date is speaking, especially when he or she is telling you about themselves. If your date is talking, listen graciously. However, do not hesitate to speak up when it’s your turn to speak.

9. Sustain the Conversation

Keep the discussion light on a first date and stay away from trouble topics like previous relationships, politics, or religion. Try add some humor into your conversation. Humor is often a great ice breaker.

10. Show Respect

On the first date, do not expect anything in return. Take it as a chance to get to know your date better. Respect your date by not putting them in compromising situations.

11. Be Open Minded

People are different, try to understand your date as much as possible. Do not shut them out and give up on a date a few minutes after first meeting them. Be interested in the likelihood of something truly cool happening between the two of you.

12. Make It Short

A perfect first date should be short. Maintaining such a short period creates the desire to expect more and probably set up a second date.

13. Do Not Grill

You may be tempted to ask your date a bunch of questions to get to know them better. However, get to know your date by working your questions into your conversation. Don’t act like a prosecutor and grill your date by firing off one question after another. This can wear people out make your date seem more like a job interview than a romantic occasion. Look for chances to get acquainted without grilling your date as if it’s an interrogation.

14. Be Creative

Be playful and make becoming acquainted with each other fun. Try to play a guessing game rather than asking direct questions. Attempt to connect with your date through cool and unusually activities to break the ice or create the right vibe.

15. Show Interest

After your date tells you a story, follow up with some comments or questions to demonstrate that you are amused or surprised and show that you are listening. Alternatively, after you tell a story, you can ask your date a basic question like “What you think about that?” to engage your date in conversation.

How to Make Great Success

In many ways blind dating is no different than any other type of dating. The basic elements of dating still exist but you do need to exercise more caution in a blind date. Like any other date you want a blind date to go well so that you can ensure yourself a second date. However, while it is important to exercise caution in all types of dating it’s even more important in blind dating. Another factor unique to blind dating is getting set up with a great date. While this may not always be in your hands there are some ways that you can take some initiative in this area.

Like any date the key to a blind date is setting yourself up for a second date. Arranging a fun date and being interesting to your date are two keys to achieving a second date. In making conversation on a blind date, it is important to take an interest in what your date has to say. Doing this will let them know that you are interested in getting to know them better. Also, try speaking about subjects that you really enjoy. This will make you not only sound more natural but will also make you sound more interesting.

Dressing to impress is also critical to a blind date. In meeting someone for the first time you will want to ensure that you make a good first impression. You don’t always know how much a blind date already knows about you but it doesn’t hurt to show up for the date looking as though you have put a great deal of effort into your appearance. You’re date will appreciate the effort and be flattered by your going out of your way to impress them.

One key factor to blind dating is to exercise caution in meeting your date. Even if you are being set up by a close friend you can’t be positive that they know the person they are setting you up with very well. It’s best to set up an initial meeting in a well lit and populated location. Never agree to meet someone you don’t know at a secluded location. While your blind date may be a wonderful person with no intentions of hurting you, it’s best to exercise caution on a blind date.

Another factor unique to the blind dating situation is getting yourself set up with a great date. You may have several friends that are interested in setting you up with a friend or relative whom they think is just perfect for you but try not to agree to go on a blind date that is set up by someone who doesn’t know you very well. If they don’t know you well, then don’t trust them to choose a date for you. However, if you have a friend who does know you very well, don’t hesitate to drop hints about what you are looking for in a date. Those who know you best are most likely to set you up with a compatible blind date.

Making an honest effort to have a good time on your date is another tip that can lead to a successful blind date. If you go into a blind date with the attitude that things won’t work out, you will most likely unconsciously put a damper on the date. Your date may sense your lack of enthusiasm and in turn won’t be inspired to put an effort into having a good time either.

Another tip for blind dating is to be sure to end the date appropriately. Many people may recommend that when going on a blind date you have a backup plan in place such as having a friend call you shortly after the date starts to give you an excuse to leave if things aren’t going well but doing this just isn’t right. Instead extend your blind date the same common courtesy that you would any other date and be willing to complete the entire date. If neither party is having a good time, it’s acceptable to end the date early and just agree that you weren’t compatible but don’t be too quick to give up on the date. Also, at the conclusion of the date be honest about your feelings towards your date. If things just didn’t work out, don’t be afraid to let them know instead of offering empty promises of future dates. However, if you truly enjoyed your date, let your partner know and take the opportunity to suggest a second date.

Bringing a friend along is another tip for blind dating. This is helpful for a couple of reasons. First if your blind date had any malicious intentions towards you, having a friend along is likely to spoil his plan. Secondly a friend may be able to ease the tension and break the ice by getting the conversation started. While the addition of an extra person on a date may seem awkward, having them there can provide emotional spirit and an additional comfort level.

Even if the date is going well, another tip for blind dating is to end the date after 2-3 hours. This is an adequate amount of time for two people to get to know each other on a date and determine whether or not they would be interested in a second date. Blind dates that last longer than this often reach a point where the couple runs out of things to talk about and the date can stagnate leaving a negative feeling at the end of the date. Keeping the date short can help you to end the date on a positive note and will leave you with more to talk about on a second date.

Being yourself is important on any date but it’s critical on a blind date. A blind date deals with someone who does not know you so it’s important to give them a true sense of yourself on your date. You may get away with pretending to be something you are not on the first date but it may lead to trouble in future dates as your date realizes you were phoney on the first date.

Finally, treat your blind date with the same courtesy that you would any other date. You may not know the person you are dating but it is important to arrive on time, be polite and put an honest effort into the date. Your blind date is just as deserving of these courtesies as any other person you have dated. A blind date is no excuse to let your manners lapse and mistreat your date.

For the most part blind dating does not differ from any other dating situation. However, there are a few things unique to blind dating of which you should be aware. Most importantly it is critical that you not put yourself in danger by agreeing to meet a blind date in a secluded location. Another unique aspect of the blind date is that you are often set up by a friend or family member so you have the opportunity to learn what they think would be a suitable match for you. Beyond the specifics related to blind dating, the rules of regular dating still hold true. If you are polite, genuine, fun and interested in your date you will be likely to score a second date.

Importance of Expiry Date and Effective Date of Restructuring

In the case of merger and demerger, two dates are crucial, the “Appointed Date” and secondly the “Effective Date”. Corporate managers spend a lot of time to plan the exact timing of these dates. ‘Appointed Date’ is normally arranged to secure the interests & objects of the respective companies. And ‘Effective Date’ is finalized by High Court depends on upon filing of a final order of High Court with Registrar of Companies.

Importance of ‘Appointed Date’ & ‘Effective Date’:

Any scheme of compromise or arrangement should identify a date in the scheme itself as ‘Appointed Date’. This ‘appointed date’ is crucial for arriving at values of assets and liabilities appearing in the books of Accounts both for the purpose of the transfer to the Transferee company and also for arriving at the value of shares for the transferor and transferee company viz. exchange ratio. Generally, the first day of a month or the first day of a financial year is identified as the ‘appointed date’, though the Court has the discretion to decide any date as ‘transfer date’.

The ‘Effective Date’ on the other hand is the date on which the transferee company files the order of the High Court sanctioning the scheme with the Registrar of Companies for registration and when the order has so filed the amalgamation or arrangement becomes effective or having come into force from the ‘Appointed date’. The effective date is subsequent date and the company has no control over it.

Issues regarding ‘Appointed Date’ & ‘Effective Date’ and their effects on Various Aspects of Restructuring:

1. Identification of Assets & Liabilities of Transferor Company:
As per the requirements of Section 391 to 394 of the Companies Act, 1956 the Transferor company should identify and quantify the assets and liabilities which are sought to be transferred to the transferee company under merger or demerger. This identification & quantification of assets and liabilities should be done as on Appointed Date.

The details of such assets & liabilities may be annexed as a schedule to the scheme. This identification gives certainty to the scheme, as members of both the companies get a clear idea about what is going to be transferred?

2. Changes in the name/status of the company after Appointed Date:
There could be some changes in name, address or status of the company after the appointed date. Normally such changes do not affect the sanction of the scheme before High Court unless they adversely affect the rights & interests or obligations of the company and/or its members and creditors.

3. Accounting Treatment:
Normally the Transferee Company should, upon the Scheme coming into effect on effective date record the assets and liabilities of the Transferor Company vested in it pursuant to the Scheme, at the fair values thereof at the close of business of the day immediately preceding the Appointed Date.

4. Increase in share capital & Appointed Date:
The shares are allotted only after the scheme is sanctioned by the court and not before. Further, the increase of authorised share capital is always upon sanctioning of the scheme. Hence any objection to the scheme on the ground that on appointed date the share capital of the Transferee Company was not sufficient to give effect to the scheme cannot be sustained.

5. Nature of Business:
From the Appointed Date and till the Effective Date transferor company should act as a trustee of a transferee company.

The Transferor Companies should carry on all their respective business and activities and should be deemed to have held or stood possessed of and should hold and stand possessed all the said Assets for and on account of and in trust for the Transferee Company.

All the profits or income accruing or arising to the Transferor Companies or expenditure or losses arising or incurred by the Transferor Companies should for all purposes be treated and accrued as the profits and income or expenditure or losses of the Transferee Company, as the case may be.

The Transferor Companies should carry on their respective business activities with reasonable diligence, business prudence and should not alienate, charge, mortgage, encumber or otherwise deal with the said assets or any part thereof except in the ordinary course of business or pursuant to any pre-existing obligation undertaken by the Transferor Companies prior to the Appointed Date except with prior written consent of the Transferee Company.

The Transferor Companies should not, without prior written consent of the Transferee Company, undertake any new business.

The Transferor Companies should not, without prior written consent of the Transferee Company, take any major policy decisions in respect of the management of the Company and for the business of the Company and should not change their present capital structure.

6. Employee Transfer:
Normally in any merger/amalgamation, all employees of the Transferor Company in service on the Effective Date could become employees of the Transferee Company on such date without any break or interruption in service and on terms and conditions not less favorable than those subsisting with reference to the Transferor Company as on the effective date. The main object of transfer of any undertaking under the scheme is to see the continuance of business, at that undertaking, under the control of Transferee Company. So the transferor company should arrange to maintain the cadre and number in service on the effective date who are willing to get transferred to the transferee company

7. Declaration of Dividend: Transferee Company
Dividend declared by the transferee company, after the Appointed Date, is payable to members of the transferor company also. And this does not violate the provisions of section 205 of Companies Act, 1956. While it is true that unless court sanctions the scheme, it would not become effective, but once the court accords its sanction, it would become effective from the Appointed Date. So the shareholders of Transferor Company become shareholders of Transferee Company from ‘Appointed Date’ itself. Hence they are entitled to any dividend declared by Transferee Company after ‘Appointed Date’.